2012年6月英语四级翻译答案及解析(沪江版)

  2012年6月16日全国大学英语四级考试已结束,本次考试报考人数达924万人。以下是英语四级翻译答案及解析(沪江版),以供广大考生参考:

1 新开始

告别熟悉的故乡亲朋,穿越拥挤的高速车站,很多人今天开始开工了。新的开始,希望有新的希望和进步。

十天搞定英语语法系列原定是一天一更,十天完毕。但是回乡省亲和迎来送往把我的时间彻底分割,无法获得写作要求的安静,因此到今天,才准备第三篇。

既然已经开始上班,那就抓紧业余的时间,认真做内容,不再管多久能完工。或许,这一期语法专题写完,又会有新的思路视野。

图片 1

作为新的开始,本文也有两个新的要素:动漫配图和时文转写。

前者,是专门用链接制作的,适合充当PPT的标题,也可以做图片,富有冲击力。

后者,是选自中国日报的文章,讲述了贺岁档电影破纪录的票房收入。该文紧贴时事,不仅可以帮助我们熟悉电影的基本表达法,更可用来练习被动语态。原文见Six films top 6.3b yuan over holiday


  87. Those flowers looked as if they hadn't been watered for a long time(好长时间没有浇水了)。

2. 被动语态的骨骼

任何一个语法点,都有其精髓。

而被动语态的精髓,就是它的结构。

请参照图片。

图片 2

被动语态核心结构

举例来说,现在完成时的被动语态。

原句也就是主动语态的句子:I have run out of my holidays.

被动语态:My holidays have been run out of. 其中,have/has的单复数由主语单复数决定,been不能少,done必须是原句谓语动词(run)的过去分词(run)。过去分词这一块自己可以单独找一下不规则动词表记忆一下。也可以参考英语不规则动词表

记住结构和不规则动词变化,完成三分之一的内容。

中间的三分之一,是动词和宾语的搭配。什么意思?被动语态必须是有动宾搭配,才能成立。也就是说,不及物动词本身没有被动。但是如果加上介词,就有了。这也就是为什么刚才的例句My holidays have been run out of中,of不能省略的原因。

同理,诸如I came to Beijing yesterday.这样的句子是没有被动的,因为come后面不能直接接东西,to Beijing是一个表示地点的状语,无论形成像“run out of+宾语”这样的结构。同理,下面例句的介词也不能丢。

We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

所以,像happen, break down, come out这样的不及物动词,都是没有被动的。而有一些加介词有被动的搭配,介词万万不能少。

掌握了这两点,被动语态基本上懂个八九不离十了。


  【点评】they即flowers做主语,用被动语态。一段时间应用完成时,looked过去式相比,后面应该过去完成时。

3. 特殊用法

语法当中,除了符合通用规则的大部分项目,总是有一部分特例。对于特例,我们倡导的是造句记忆和单选练习。通过大量的类似练习建立条件反射,从而彻底拿下。

图片 3

被动语态中英文表述

被动语态的特例不多。如下。

3.1 动词的主动形式表示被动之意

1)某些连系动词,如:look, feel, smell,sound, prove等。

The flower smells sweet.

Maria proves very patient and warm-hearted.

2)表示主语内在“品质”或“性能”的动词,虽然可以是及物动词,但这时用作不及物动词,如lock, shut, close, open, move, read, write, sell, wash, clean, draw, cut, translate, burn, run, ride, begin, end, operate。

The sentences translate hard.

The door won’t shut.

3)某些动词用在句型“主+谓+主补”时,如wear,blow,prove等。    

The door blew open.

3.2 “动词+反身代词”与“be+过去分词”结构

注意下面短语:devote oneself to (献身于) seat oneself (就坐) dress oneself (穿衣), amuse oneself (自娱自乐) lose oneself (迷路) prepare oneself for (做好心理准备), concern oneself about (担心)

这些短语经常用被动结构表示主动意义。

They were seated in the front of the hall.

He was concerned about his work.

My students are well prepared for the test.

His mother is dressed in white at the party.

3.3 感官动词(see, hear为主)或使役动词(make/let/have)使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

3.4 It is said/ reported/believed, etc. + 从句的变化

“It is said/ reported/believed, etc. + 从句”表示据说/据报道/据信......,此句型可以变成从句主语作主语的句型:sb. +be said/ reported/believed, etc. +不定式。如果原来从句的谓语动作已经完成,不定式用完成式;如果从句的谓语动作是经常性动作或还没有完成,用不定式的一般式。

It is said that James is an expert on DNA. = James is said to be an expert on DNA.

It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. = The boy is said to have passed the national exam.

以上就是主要的特殊用法。


  88. Fred bought a car last week. It is £1,000 cheaper than mine(比我的车便宜一千英镑)。

4. 实操

将选自中国日报的下列例句改写成被动或主动语态。

4.1 Six Chinese movies raked in about 6.38 billion yuan ($1 billion) in total just a week after their release on the first day of Spring Festival.

4.2 According to Maoyan, theaters in third- and fourth-tier cities drew the most crowds during Spring Festival.

4.3 Jiaolong Commando Unit leaders and veterans of the Jiaolong special forces unit trained the cast in advance and followed the film crew during shooting for guidance.

4.4 Many movie theaters have been constructed in third- and fourth-tier cities in recent years, providing more movie screens for patrons to choose from.

4.4 Most premier tickets were sold out a day in advance.

Reference:

4.1 About 6.38 billion yuan ($1 billion) was raked in in total just a week after their release on the first day of Spring Festival.

4.2 According to Maoyan, the most crowds were drawn by theaters in third- and fourth-tier cities during Spring Festival.

4.3 The cast was trained and the film crew was followe by Jiaolong Commando Unit leaders and veterans of the Jiaolong special forces unit in advance during shooting for guidance.

4.4 Third- and fourth-tier cities have constructed many movie theaters in recent years, providing more movie screens for patrons to choose from.

4.4 The cinemas sold out most premier tickets a day in advance.

多加练习,很快就掌握了。


希望你学有所得。

  【点评】简单的比较级,cheaper than。不需要重复car,直接用mine代替my car。

  89. This TV program is quite boring. We might as well listen to the music (不妨听听音乐)。

  【点评】might as well“不妨”,原句中有might。listen to the music,听音乐。

  90. He left his office in a hurry, with lights on and doors open(灯亮着,门开着)。

  【点评】with短语做伴随状语,逻辑主语和表语之间的系动词省略。